World AIDS Day: Our country has the third highest number of estimated people living with HIV in the world. The estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS in India was 2.08 million (20.9 lakhs in 2011) out of which an enormous 86% of whom were in 15-49 years age group.
Children less than 15 years of age accounted for 7% (1.45 lakh) of all infections in 2011. Of all HIV infections, 39% (8.16 lakh) were among women.
“The HIV epidemic in India is concentrated, with high prevalence among high-risk groups (i.e., Intravenous drug users, sex workers, men who have sex with men and transgender people), moderate prevalence among bridge populations (i.e., people, who, through close proximity to high risk groups are at the risk of contracting HIV. Quite often they are clients or partners of male and female sex workers. Truckers and migrant labours are major bridge populations), and low prevalence among general population,” says Dr Satish Chandra, Advisor to Credihealth.
Three primary routes of HIV transmission in India: (i) unprotected sex (ii) injecting drug use (iii) unprotected anal sex between men.
Why is an AIDS Vaccine important?
Antibodies are capable general wellbeing instrument and have turned out to be the world’s best and financially savvy preventive system.
– A 70% compelling AIDS immunization could diminish new diseases by 40% in its initial 10 years; and half in its initial 25 years.
– Globally, around 36.9 million individuals answered to live with AIDS, in the year 2014. (Source: UNAIDS)
– AIDS is the #1 enemy of ladies of conceptive age, comprehensively
– AIDS is the #2 enemy of young people, comprehensively
How is India situated as a component of worldwide endeavors to find an immunization?
– India’s quality lies in its rich pool of researchers and medicinal services experts who are comprehensively aggressive, a focused logical foundation and a flourishing bio pharma industry. Moreover, the Government of India is focused on this fundamentally vital reason.
Why is the making of an immunization so difficult?
– HIV is a mind boggling pathogen
– Part of what makes HIV such a troublesome infection to battle is its capacity to irately change the trimeric envelope protein on its external surface. This high transformation rate offers ascend to various HIV subtypes that flow the world over, letting the infection to get away from the reactions that human safe frameworks mount against it.
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– That the infection could transform and recapture its pathogenicity has rendered approaches like utilizing constricted forms of the pathogens to inoculate individuals or utilizing a slaughtered or inactivated infection received for influencing different antibodies to like measles, polio and flu, unsuccessful hitherto. Researchers are figuring out how to be as wily as the infection to find better approaches to battle it.
– There are different difficulties one of a kind to HIV. In the wake of following the transmission, infection scatters and builds up a determined disease, including concealed repositories from which it can strike again whenever. The open door for an immunization prompted reaction to maintain a strategic distance from disease or to control the underlying, constrained contamination is along these lines brief.
– Scientists still don’t see how to inspire particular, strong, and defensive resistant reactions against HIV.
Where are we today headed straight toward a suitable AIDS Vaccine for people?
– Progress amid the previous five years is impelling imaginative and promising new methodologies. Researchers have broke down powerful antibodies that kill an expansive range of HIV variations coursing the world over.
– In expansion, a few preclinical investigations of novel vectors for HIV immunization have created promising outcomes, far surpassing the execution in comparable investigations of competitors that are today in clinical trials.
– Breakthrough revelations are prompting more refined and focused on antibody outlines
– Some researchers are gaining noteworthy ground by utilizing figuring out or structure-helped antibody disclosure. In this approach, killing antibodies from constantly contaminated HIV patients is segregated extensively whose insusceptible frameworks deliver them.
– Even the clinical trials with disillusioning outcomes are and will keep on being imperative. The lessons learned in HIV antibody explore are likewise battling influenza, intestinal sickness, malignancy, Ebola.
– Another real progress has been the researchers’ capacity to get a nuclear level picture of the HIV envelope trimer, the key focus for comprehensively killing antibodies.
– Collectively, these efforts are paving the way for a non-traditional immunoprophylaxis that can protect against HIV infection without depending on the lengthy and complex antibody maturation process required to generate broadly neutralizing antibodies through immunization.